Earthenware Market with Geographic Segmentation, Statistical Forecast and Competitive Analysis Report to 2021

Earthenware Market analysis is provided for Global market including development trends by regions, competitive analysis of the Earthenware market. Earthenware Industry report focuses on the major drivers and restraints for the key players.

Earthenware generally means a ceramic material which has a variety of uses ranging from pottery, tableware to decorative objects. The compositions vary to a great extent among countries and also among individual makers.

Get Sample PDF of Earthenware Market Report @

http://www.360marketupdates.com/enquiry/request-sample/10323634

Earthenware Market Segment by Manufacturers, this report covers

· ELHO

· Poterie Lorraine

· Titisinaran

· Yorkshire

· Yixing Wankun

· Hongshan Flowerpot and many more

Earthenware Market Segment by Regions, regional analysis covers

· North America (USA, Canada and Mexico)

· Europe (Germany, France, UK, Russia and Italy)

· Asia-Pacific (China, Japan, Korea, India and Southeast Asia)

· Latin America, Middle East and Africa

Browse Detailed TOC, Tables, Figures, Charts and Companies Mentioned in Earthenware Market Research Report @   http://360marketupdates.com/10323634

Scope of the Report:

This report focuses on the Earthenware in Global market, especially in North America, Europe and Asia-Pacific, Latin America, Middle East and Africa. This report categorizes the market based on manufacturers, regions, type and application.

Earthenware Market Segment by Type, covers

· Black pottery

· Red pottery

· Others

Earthenware Market Segment by Applications, can be divided into

· Flower pot

· Teapot

· Decorations

· Others

Ask for Discount @  http://www.360marketupdates.com/enquiry/request-discount/10323634

Key questions answered in the report:

·What will the market growth rate of Earthenware market in 2020?

·What are the key factors driving the Global Earthenware market?

·What are sales, revenue, and price analysis of top manufacturers of Earthenware market?

·Who are the distributors, traders and dealers of Earthenware market?

·Who are the key vendors in Earthenware market space?

·What are the Earthenware market opportunities and threats faced by the vendors in the Global Earthenware market?

·What are sales, revenue, and price analysis by types, application and regions of Earthenware market?

·What are the market opportunities, market risk and market overview of the Earthenware market?

No. of Report pages: 111

Price of Report: $ 3480 (Single User Licence)

Purchase Report @ http://www.360marketupdates.com/purchase/10323634

About 360 Market Updates:

360 Market Updates is the credible source for gaining the market research reports that will exponentially accelerate your business. We are among the leading report resellers in the business world committed towards optimizing your business. The reports we provide are based on a research that covers a magnitude of factors such as technological evolution, economic shifts and a detailed study of market segments.

Contact–

Mr. Ameya Pingaley
360 Market Updates
+1 408 520 9750
Email – sales@360marketupdates.com

Earthenware Market with Geographic Segmentation, Statistical Forecast and Competitive Analysis Report to 2021

Earthenware Market analysis is provided for Global market including development trends by regions, competitive analysis of the Earthenware market. Earthenware Industry report focuses on the major drivers and restraints for the key players.

Earthenware generally means a ceramic material which has a variety of uses ranging from pottery, tableware to decorative objects. The compositions vary to a great extent among countries and also among individual makers.

Get Sample PDF of Earthenware Market Report @

http://www.360marketupdates.com/enquiry/request-sample/10323634

Earthenware Market Segment by Manufacturers, this report covers

· ELHO

· Poterie Lorraine

· Titisinaran

· Yorkshire

· Yixing Wankun

· Hongshan Flowerpot and many more

Earthenware Market Segment by Regions, regional analysis covers

· North America (USA, Canada and Mexico)

· Europe (Germany, France, UK, Russia and Italy)

· Asia-Pacific (China, Japan, Korea, India and Southeast Asia)

· Latin America, Middle East and Africa

Browse Detailed TOC, Tables, Figures, Charts and Companies Mentioned in Earthenware Market Research Report @   http://360marketupdates.com/10323634

Scope of the Report:

This report focuses on the Earthenware in Global market, especially in North America, Europe and Asia-Pacific, Latin America, Middle East and Africa. This report categorizes the market based on manufacturers, regions, type and application.

Earthenware Market Segment by Type, covers

· Black pottery

· Red pottery

· Others

Earthenware Market Segment by Applications, can be divided into

· Flower pot

· Teapot

· Decorations

· Others

Ask for Discount @  http://www.360marketupdates.com/enquiry/request-discount/10323634

Key questions answered in the report:

·What will the market growth rate of Earthenware market in 2020?

·What are the key factors driving the Global Earthenware market?

·What are sales, revenue, and price analysis of top manufacturers of Earthenware market?

·Who are the distributors, traders and dealers of Earthenware market?

·Who are the key vendors in Earthenware market space?

·What are the Earthenware market opportunities and threats faced by the vendors in the Global Earthenware market?

·What are sales, revenue, and price analysis by types, application and regions of Earthenware market?

·What are the market opportunities, market risk and market overview of the Earthenware market?

No. of Report pages: 111

Price of Report: $ 3480 (Single User Licence)

Purchase Report @ http://www.360marketupdates.com/purchase/10323634

The SDG Media Zone Partners with EARTHx to Amplify Global Discussions at the United Nations Ocean Conference

iCrowdNewswire – Jun 2, 2017

The SDG Media Zone will report from The Ocean Conference on June 5-9 at the United Nations Headquarters, welcoming editors, bloggers, high-level delegates and influencers to communicate innovations, partnerships and discussions. Billions of people depend on the oceans, seas and marine resources for life, livelihoods, trade, economic growth and prosperity. Yet the state of the world’s ocean is rapidly deteriorating.

The Ocean Conference will mobilize action by all stakeholders—leaders of governments, the private sector, civil society, academic institutions, the scientific community—to advance the implementation of Sustainable Development Goal 14 (SDG 14) which calls for efforts to conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources.

With the rising importance of the ocean’s health as one of the most critical issues of our time, EARTHx Founder Trammell S. Crow will join global leaders to convene for The Ocean Conference, the first UN conference of its kind, focused on the protection and sustainable use of the planet’s oceans.

Together the SDG Media Zone and its official partner, EARTHx will communicate innovations, partnerships and discussions as a call to action for humanity to engage the Sustainable Development Goals.

“It has never been more paramount to bring awareness to our planet’s future, especially raising awareness and education about our oceans,” said Trammell S. Crow. “More than 70 percent of Earth’s water is ocean and all life on Earth is connected to the ocean and its inhabitants, so we must find solutions.”

EARTHx (formerly Earth Day Texas) brings together innovative environmental thinkers and business professionals to create positive sustainable solutions. This past April, EARTHx hosted its seventh annual Earth Day expo & conference featuring more than 900 exhibitors and 260 world-renowned speakers. The five-day event featured programs on clean technology, environmental policy, educational film series, and workshops that raised awareness about our planet’s oceans through initiatives and panels such as Future 500, E-Capital Summit, Plasticity Forum, EARTHACK and Legal Symposium.

During the Ocean Conference, the UN Department of Public Information in collaboration with the UN Foundation and the PVBLIC Foundation will host the SDG Media Zone—a live broadcast of interviews, panel discussions and other digital content—to engage people all around the world in the important conversations happening at the conference. People will have the opportunity to listen to leading experts discuss how to take action and address the challenges of the ocean.

Participants will include ministers, high-level representatives of civil society organizations, ocean advocates and celebrities. Some of the confirmed speakers will include H.E. Peter Thomson, president of the United Nations General Assembly; and Irina Bokova, director- General of UNESCO.

For more information please visit: SDG Media Zone and engage in the conversation using #SDGLive and #SaveOurOcean
Twitter:  @SDGMEDIAZONE   Facebook: SDG Media Zone   Instagram: sdgmediazone

# # #

 

About SDG Media Zone:

The SDG Media Zone is a platform for editors, bloggers, content creators and influencers to communicate innovations, partnerships and discussions as a call to action for humanity to engage the Sustainable Development Goals. The SDG Media Zone is a PVBLIC Foundation’s initiative. PVBLIC is a registered 501c3 and makes the SDG Media Zone possible via cross-sector partnerships. For more information, please visit: sdgmediazone.org

 

About EARTHx 

As a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization focused on environmental education and awareness, EARTHx, formerly known as Earth Day Texas, has created the world’s largest annual forum for sharing the latest initiatives, discoveries, research, innovations, policies, corporate and NGO practices that are reshaping the future of our planet. Founded in 2011 by Dallas-based environmentalist, philanthropist and businessman Trammell S. Crow, EARTHx promotes environmental awareness by curating an atmosphere for conscious business, nonpartisan collaboration and community-driven sustainable solutions.  For more information, visit www.earthx.org.  To learn more about EARTHx, please see the recent announcement or view the YouTube video.

The SDG Media Zone Partners with EARTHx to Amplify Global Discussions at the United Nations Ocean Conference

iCrowdNewswire – Jun 2, 2017

The SDG Media Zone will report from The Ocean Conference on June 5-9 at the United Nations Headquarters, welcoming editors, bloggers, high-level delegates and influencers to communicate innovations, partnerships and discussions. Billions of people depend on the oceans, seas and marine resources for life, livelihoods, trade, economic growth and prosperity. Yet the state of the world’s ocean is rapidly deteriorating.

The Ocean Conference will mobilize action by all stakeholders—leaders of governments, the private sector, civil society, academic institutions, the scientific community—to advance the implementation of Sustainable Development Goal 14 (SDG 14) which calls for efforts to conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources.

With the rising importance of the ocean’s health as one of the most critical issues of our time, EARTHx Founder Trammell S. Crow will join global leaders to convene for The Ocean Conference, the first UN conference of its kind, focused on the protection and sustainable use of the planet’s oceans.

Together the SDG Media Zone and its official partner, EARTHx will communicate innovations, partnerships and discussions as a call to action for humanity to engage the Sustainable Development Goals.

“It has never been more paramount to bring awareness to our planet’s future, especially raising awareness and education about our oceans,” said Trammell S. Crow. “More than 70 percent of Earth’s water is ocean and all life on Earth is connected to the ocean and its inhabitants, so we must find solutions.”

EARTHx (formerly Earth Day Texas) brings together innovative environmental thinkers and business professionals to create positive sustainable solutions. This past April, EARTHx hosted its seventh annual Earth Day expo & conference featuring more than 900 exhibitors and 260 world-renowned speakers. The five-day event featured programs on clean technology, environmental policy, educational film series, and workshops that raised awareness about our planet’s oceans through initiatives and panels such as Future 500, E-Capital Summit, Plasticity Forum, EARTHACK and Legal Symposium.

During the Ocean Conference, the UN Department of Public Information in collaboration with the UN Foundation and the PVBLIC Foundation will host the SDG Media Zone—a live broadcast of interviews, panel discussions and other digital content—to engage people all around the world in the important conversations happening at the conference. People will have the opportunity to listen to leading experts discuss how to take action and address the challenges of the ocean.

Participants will include ministers, high-level representatives of civil society organizations, ocean advocates and celebrities. Some of the confirmed speakers will include H.E. Peter Thomson, president of the United Nations General Assembly; and Irina Bokova, director- General of UNESCO.

For more information please visit: SDG Media Zone and engage in the conversation using #SDGLive and #SaveOurOcean
Twitter:  @SDGMEDIAZONE   Facebook: SDG Media Zone   Instagram: sdgmediazone

# # #

 

About SDG Media Zone:

The SDG Media Zone is a platform for editors, bloggers, content creators and influencers to communicate innovations, partnerships and discussions as a call to action for humanity to engage the Sustainable Development Goals. The SDG Media Zone is a PVBLIC Foundation’s initiative. PVBLIC is a registered 501c3 and makes the SDG Media Zone possible via cross-sector partnerships. For more information, please visit: sdgmediazone.org

 

About EARTHx 

As a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization focused on environmental education and awareness, EARTHx, formerly known as Earth Day Texas, has created the world’s largest annual forum for sharing the latest initiatives, discoveries, research, innovations, policies, corporate and NGO practices that are reshaping the future of our planet. Founded in 2011 by Dallas-based environmentalist, philanthropist and businessman Trammell S. Crow, EARTHx promotes environmental awareness by curating an atmosphere for conscious business, nonpartisan collaboration and community-driven sustainable solutions.  For more information, visit www.earthx.org.  To learn more about EARTHx, please see the recent announcement or view the YouTube video.

Tag! You’re it!

Adelie penguin populations, like this one at Cape Crozier, is the focus of ornithologist David Ainley and his teams research
Photo Credit: Mike Lucibella
Adelie penguin populations, like this one at Cape Crozier, is the focus of ornithologist David Ainley and his team’s research.

New Tracking Devices Let Researchers Know What Penguins are Up To in the Winter

By Michael Lucibella, Antarctic Sun Editor

Posted May 17, 2017

A number of Adelie penguins around the Ross Sea are sporting sophisticated new leg bands this year.

David Ainley and Jean Pennycook attach a new location tracking band to a penguin's leg

Photo Credit: Jean Pennycook

David Ainley and Jean Pennycook attach a new location tracking band to a penguin’s leg.

A number of Adelie penguins around the Ross Sea are sporting sophisticated new leg bands this year.

Ornithologist David Ainley and his team attached new electronic tags to about 150 penguins to record where each penguin goes and how deeply it dives under water. The tagging project ties in with a broader effort that he’s been spearheading for 20 years, monitoring Adelie penguin populations and demographics around Ross Island.

Already the tagging has yielded a rather surprising scientific result: though there have been annual variations, overall the average annual extent of the sea ice around the Ross Sea has been increasing for the last 30 years. However, the number of penguins in the region haven’t been doing what Ainley predicted.

The new bands can tell researchers where a penguin travels using only the sun, and pressure sensors to see how deep they dive

Photo Credit: Jean Pennycook

The new bands can tell researchers where a penguin travels using only the sun, and pressure sensors to see how deep they dive.

“We were expecting the population size to be decreasing because the sea ice is expanding, but it’s not,” Ainley said. “The population isn’t decreasing, in fact it’s increasing rather dramatically.”

He added that the penguins are thriving likely because too much commercial fishing has dramatically reduced the population of their biggest competitors, the Antarctic toothfish. Both Adelie penguins and the toothfish feast on the sardine-sized silverfish, but as the numbers of toothfish have declined, it’s made for easier pickings for the Adelies.

“Chicks raised with a high prevalence of fish in their diets become much more robust than those just raised on krill,” Ainley said.

Researcher Katie Dugger observes Adelie penguins at Cape Royds

Photo Credit: Mike Lucibella

Researcher Katie Dugger observes Adelie penguins at Cape Royds.

Ainley is the senior ecologist at a San Francisco Bay Area ecological consulting firm, H.T. Harvey and Associates. Every summer, he and his team set up camp near the Cape Crozier and Cape Royds penguin colonies on Ross Island to track how many there are and their nesting behavior.

With these new tracking leg bands, they hope to better understand what the penguins do and where they go over the long dark austral winter, when the team is back home and the penguins migrate out to sea. The project is supported by the National Science Foundation, which manages the U.S. Antarctic Program.

Previous research has shown that during the darkness of the months-long Antarctic winter, Adelie penguins leave their nests on dry land and swim north, past the Antarctic Circle, and spend the season on ice floes in the Ross Sea Gyre, a spiraling ocean current off the coast of West Antarctica.

“Like a big merry-go-round, they go around this big gyre in the winter time,” Ainley said. “Essentially they sit on ice floes most of the time, jump off every few hours, for a few hours a day they eat, then jump back on the ice.”

Analog penguin tags help researchers keep track of the overall penguin population and their behavior

Photo Credit: Mike Lucibella

Analog penguin tags help researchers keep track of the overall penguin population and their behavior.

About the size of a high school graduation ring, the tags loop around the lower leg of the penguins so they don’t affect their mobility in the water. They’re similar to tags he and his team have used in the past to track their locations, but they also record information about how deep they dive.

Like their precursors, these new tags contain precise clocks and tiny light sensors. Using a modern version of age-old maritime techniques, it measures the position of the sun in the sky to calculate the bird’s location to within about 50 kilometers without needing a GPS.

“Just like in the old days of sailing ships with your sextant and all that kind of stuff, you can determine position based on day length and time of local noon relative to local Greenwich Time, and that gives you latitude and longitude,” Ainley said.

These new ones also have pressure sensors built into them so they can record how long and how deep a penguin dives under water. Next season, Ainley and his team will recover as many of the 155 deployed devices as they can, download the data and attach new devices to the same animals.

Researcher Emily Burke writes down a note after observing penguin chicks at Cape Crozier

Photo Credit: Mike Lucibella

Researcher Emily Burke writes down a note after observing penguin chicks at Cape Crozier.

“The idea is to do it three years in a row and get a longitudinal study of having them on the same individual for three years, to see how it responds to differences in sea ice extent in the winter,” Ainley said.

Over the frigid winter months, the temperature around Antarctica drops to the point where the ocean itself starts to freeze. The ice builds up along the coastline and by the end of winter, extends out to sea for miles. How far out it reaches has a major impact on the penguin populations.

“We found in years where there’s really extensive sea ice in the Ross Sea region that four to five years later there would be a decrease in the colony size,” Ainley said. “What that’s saying is that survival of young birds is reduced in those years of very extensive sea ice.”

The new tags will be able to tell Ainley and his team more about how often the penguins are feeding on the silverfish. Krill live higher up in the water column than the silverfish, so when the penguins swim deeper to catch the fish, it’ll be recorded on their leg bands.

“This is an aspect of learning more about possible factors that affect population change,” Ainley said.

NSF-funded research in this story: David Ainley, H.T. Harvey & Associates, Award No. 1543541.

Earthenware Market with Geographic Segmentation, Statistical Forecast and Competitive Analysis Report to 2021

Earthenware Market analysis is provided for Global market including development trends by regions, competitive analysis of the Earthenware market. Earthenware Industry report focuses on the major drivers and restraints for the key players.

Earthenware generally means a ceramic material which has a variety of uses ranging from pottery, tableware to decorative objects. The compositions vary to a great extent among countries and also among individual makers.

Get Sample PDF of Earthenware Market Report @

http://www.360marketupdates.com/enquiry/request-sample/10323634

Earthenware Market Segment by Manufacturers, this report covers

· ELHO

· Poterie Lorraine

· Titisinaran

· Yorkshire

· Yixing Wankun

· Hongshan Flowerpot and many more

Earthenware Market Segment by Regions, regional analysis covers

· North America (USA, Canada and Mexico)

· Europe (Germany, France, UK, Russia and Italy)

· Asia-Pacific (China, Japan, Korea, India and Southeast Asia)

· Latin America, Middle East and Africa

Browse Detailed TOC, Tables, Figures, Charts and Companies Mentioned in Earthenware Market Research Report @   http://360marketupdates.com/10323634

Scope of the Report:

This report focuses on the Earthenware in Global market, especially in North America, Europe and Asia-Pacific, Latin America, Middle East and Africa. This report categorizes the market based on manufacturers, regions, type and application.

Earthenware Market Segment by Type, covers

· Black pottery

· Red pottery

· Others

Earthenware Market Segment by Applications, can be divided into

· Flower pot

· Teapot

· Decorations

· Others

Ask for Discount @  http://www.360marketupdates.com/enquiry/request-discount/10323634

Key questions answered in the report:

·What will the market growth rate of Earthenware market in 2020?

·What are the key factors driving the Global Earthenware market?

·What are sales, revenue, and price analysis of top manufacturers of Earthenware market?

·Who are the distributors, traders and dealers of Earthenware market?

·Who are the key vendors in Earthenware market space?

·What are the Earthenware market opportunities and threats faced by the vendors in the Global Earthenware market?

·What are sales, revenue, and price analysis by types, application and regions of Earthenware market?

·What are the market opportunities, market risk and market overview of the Earthenware market?

No. of Report pages: 111

Price of Report: $ 3480 (Single User Licence)

Purchase Report @ http://www.360marketupdates.com/purchase/10323634

About 360 Market Updates:

360 Market Updates is the credible source for gaining the market research reports that will exponentially accelerate your business. We are among the leading report resellers in the business world committed towards optimizing your business. The reports we provide are based on a research that covers a magnitude of factors such as technological evolution, economic shifts and a detailed study of market segments.

Contact–

Mr. Ameya Pingaley
360 Market Updates
+1 408 520 9750
Email – sales@360marketupdates.com

Eight Geological sites in Asia, Europe and Latin America become UNESCO Global Geoparks

Paris, 05 May—Eight sites demonstrating the great diversity of our planet’s geology have received the UNESCO Global Geopark label on 5 May, when UNESCO’s Executive Board endorsed the decisions made by the UNESCO Global Geoparks Council during its first session in Torquay, UK, last September.

UNESCO Global Geoparks are territories that promote geodiversity through community-led initiatives to enhance regional sustainable development. They help monitor and promote awareness of climate change and natural disasters and many of them help local communities prepare disaster mitigation strategies.

With this year’s eight additions, the world network now numbers 127 UNESCO Global Geoparks in 35 countries. They celebrate the 4.6-billion-year history of our planet and the geodiversity that has shaped every aspect of our lives and societies. Furthermore, Geoparks create opportunities for sustainable tourism, whose importance has been recognized by the United Nations, which named 2017 as International Year of Sustainable Tourism for Development.

The eight newly designated sites are:

Arxan is a mid-low mountain region situated in China’s Autonomous Region of Inner Mongolia. With 35 well-exposed volcanoes that are over 2.5million years old, Arxan features an exceptionally dense concentration of volcanic landforms, with a rich variety of lakes and natural springs.  The UNESCO Global Geopark has developed extensive sustainable rural tourism services which offer the visitor a rare and unusual experience of a northern Chinese frontier area.

The Causses du Quercy UNESCO Global Geopark is located in the southwest of France, at the northern end of the Midi-Pyrénées region. It features a unique karst heritage shaped by a unique geological history that led to the formation of phosphate caves containing thousands of perfectly preserved fossils that recorded life conditions 52 to 20 million years ago. It makes this area a true “natural evolution laboratory”. The study of these fossils is part of a participatory science education programme, Graines de paléontologues („paleontologists seeds”) for elementary and secondary school students.

(Republic of Korea)

© Cheongsong UNESCO Global Geopark

Cheongsong UNESCO Global Geopark is located in the central eastern area of the Republic of Korea. Its name is derived from “Cheongbo” and “Songsang,” meaning “green treasure” and “pine tree ecology,” respectively. The volcanic rocks in Cheongsong have exceptionally high silica content, which caused the hot lava that flowed from the area’s volcanos to form balls of dark and light layers as it cooled down. This has resulted in a unique and beautiful type of rock, locally called the Flower Stone.

© Comarca Minera, Hidalgo UNESCO Global Geopark

The Comarca Minera, Hidalgo UNESCO Global Geopark is located in the State of Hidalgo, to the east of central Mexico, The Geopark’s most remarkable geological feature are the Prismas Basalticos, basalt or volcanic rock columns, first described in 1804 by Alexander von Humboldt, the Prussian geographer, naturalist and explorer. The 2.58-million-year-old Prismas Basalticos are exceptionally tall, some over 40 metres in height. They are the most famous basalt columns in Mexico and among the tallest in the world.

Keketouhai (China)

Keketuohai UNESCO Global Geopark is located in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China, in the inland area of Central Asia. With its spectacular granite landforms, the Geopark has sometimes been referred to as China’s Yosemite. The mainly Kazak inhabitants of the area have a rich history and culture preserved through many distinct local traditions. The site also features the unique Botamaoyin rock paintings, which are at least 3,000 years old.

Las Loras (Spain)

The Las Loras UNESCO Global Geopark is located in Spain, north of Castile and León. Its high altitude limestone moorlands, Loras, are characterized by mountainous folds of earth separated by spectacular river canyons. They dominate a spectacular landscape of natural fortresses that have been used by successive populations and cultures for refuge and protection throughout history. The area is dotted by caves, limestone cliffs, and karst landscapes resembling ruins with countless waterfalls. The well-preserved small villages of Las Loras have fine Romanesque churches, rock hermitages and examples of popular local architecture.

Mixteca Alta, Oaxaca (Mexico)

The Mixteca Alta, Oaxaca UNESCO Global Geopark is located in Mexico’s mountainous Sierra Madre del Sur province. The name of the Geopark is derived from the Mixteca civilization, which flourished from the 2nd century BC to the 15th century AD and ended with the arrival of the Spanish Conquistadores in the early 16th century. The UNESCO Global Geopark features trails along which visitors guided by local residents can examine the geological heritage of the region and its relation to ecological, historical, archaeological and cultural features.

Qeshm Island (Iran)

Qeshm Island UNESCO Global Geopark is an island shaped like a dolphin in the Strait of Hormuz, off the southern coast of Iran. Its exposed geological formations have been shaped by erosion generating a range of spectacular landscapes and beautiful rock deserts. Its preservation is supported by green tourism activities managed by local communities.

The Executive Board of UNESCO also endorsed two requests for substantial extensions to two existing UNESCO Global Geoparks in China: Leiqiong and Zigong .

Caves Of Gas

A fumarole on the slopes of Mount Erebus is the tell-tale sign that there is gas seeping from underground
Photo Credit: Tobias Fischer
A fumarole on the slopes of Mount Erebus is the tell-tale sign that there is gas seeping from underground.

Evaluating the Effervescent Emissions of Mount Erebus

By Michael Lucibella, Antarctic Sun Editor

Posted April 26, 2017

Planet Earth is gassy.

The team camped on the side of Mount Erebus, who’s smoking crater can be seen in the background

Photo Credit: Tobias Fischer

The team camped on the side of Mount Erebus, who’s smoking crater can be seen in the background.

All over the world, plumes of gasses that formed deep under the planet’s surface, pour out of active volcanoes and mix with the atmosphere. Tobias Fischer, a volcanologist at the University of New Mexico, spent two seasons exploring the frozen face of Antarctica’s Mount Erebus, the world’s southernmost active volcano, to better understand these fumes escaping from the depths of the Earth.

He and his team traveled to Antarctica to take the closest look yet at the gasses seeping out of the slopes of the volcano. Their project is supported by the National Science Foundation, which manages the U.S. Antarctic Program.

Scientists have been studying the fumes pouring out of the open crater at the peak of the mountain for years, Fischer’s is the first major attempt to understand the gasses coming off the sides, or the flank, of the volcano. They want to get as complete a picture as possible of all the emissions emanating from the mountain because they likely played a major role in Earth’s prehistoric climate.

“The bigger question is to understand what are the carbon-dioxide emissions from volcanoes globally,” Fischer said. “If we want to understand how climate has been influenced by carbon emissions from volcanoes, then we have to understand how much carbon is actually coming out of volcanoes… Erebus is a really good analogue, and so understanding that, we can use that data, we can extrapolate back into Earth’s history to see how it might have affected it.”

The gasses are the product of the Earth’s solid outer crust melting deep below the surface. At depths of several miles, the Earth’s rocky crust contacts the red-hot mantle. The extremely high temperatures and pressures at those depths liquefy the crust, releasing a range of gasses in the process.

Mountaineer Lyra Pierotti stands in front of a fumarole, an ice tower formed when water vapor refreezes into frozen tower

Photo Credit: Tobias Fischer

Mountaineer Lyra Pierotti stands in front of a fumarole, an ice tower formed when water vapor refreezes into frozen tower.

What seeps out is a mixture of carbon dioxide, sulfur, water, nitrogen and the noble gases, some of which are common in normal air, but in very different proportions. They flow up to the surface through the same magma tubes that carry the molten rock up to crater of the volcano.

“Most of the gas would come out through the crater. That’s the plume that you see looking up at Erebus,” Fischer said. “But there’s also degassing going on… this degassing happens much deeper and so the gas comes out on the sides of the volcano.”

Measuring this flank degassing on volcanos in other parts of the world is difficult because it’s hard to spot where the invisible gasses leak out of the ground. However, because a thick sheet of ice covers Mount Erebus, these warm gasses carve out spectacular ice caves and ice towers that pinpoint exactly where these seeps are located.

“Mount Erebus is the ideal laboratory volcano,” Fischer said.

Graduate student Tehnuka Ilanko of the University of New Mexico and mountaineer Lyra Pierotti prepare to climb into a fumarole

Photo Credit: Tobias Fischer

Graduate student Tehnuka Ilanko of the University of New Mexico and mountaineer Lyra Pierotti prepare to climb into a fumarole.

As the warm vapors rise out of the ground, they melt the overlying ice. This can create the dramatic ice caves that pockmark the sides of Mount Erebus. If the gasses are particularly hot, the water will evaporate and then refreeze where it contacts the cold air, forming giant ice towers called fumaroles.

Fischer and his team climbed into a number of these caves and fumaroles to sample the gasses that created them.

“Some ice caves you can just walk in, they’re horizontal. Some of them you have to climb up with rope and repel down into them,” Fischer said. “One of the caves is called Sauna Cave, and you actually have to climb up quite a bit then repel down 40 feet on a rope.”

Inside the caves, the team looked for areas on the ground that were devoid of frost, the surest sign that warm gasses were leaking out of the rocks at a particular spot.

Mountaineer Lyra Pierotti descends down into a fumarole

Photo Credit: Tobias Fischer

Mountaineer Lyra Pierotti descends down into a fumarole.

“In the caves there are these areas that are warmer areas, but [the gasses] are still really hard to collect because it’s very diffuse and to make the measurements in the caves is challenging,” Fischer said.

When they found a spot with seeping gas, they would insert a probe into the ground connected to a pump. It drew in the emissions and pumped it into the team’s sampling vials to bring back to their home institutions for analysis.

“We don’t want to pump too fast because then we’re just sucking in the ambient air, and we don’t want to pump too slow because then there’ no gas coming through,” Fischer said. “Then we just leave it for 12 hours or 24 hours or whatever works.”

They also brought along an infrared spectrometer that they kept at camp. With it, they could immediately analyze the carbon dioxide levels of the gasses they collected.

The team set up sample collectors next to spots where gas was seeping out of the ground in the ice caves

Photo Credit: Tobias Fischer

The team set up sample collectors next to spots where gas was seeping out of the ground in the ice caves.

“That’s extremely useful because you come all the way here, and you collect these samples but you don’t know if you got anything good,” Fischer said. “With that instrument that gives us really good hints.”

Though he’s studying all of the gaseous emissions, carbon dioxide is of particular interest to Fischer and his team. It’s a way to better understand how this carbon dioxide emitted by volcanoes affected Earth’s ancient climate.

Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas that traps heat from the sun in Earth’s atmosphere. The more carbon dioxide concentrated in the atmosphere, the more heat gets trapped and the warmer the climate gets.

Graduate student Tehnuka Ilanko of the University of New Mexico worked with Fischer to sample the gas inside the ice caves

Photo Credit: Tobias Fischer

Graduate student Tehnuka Ilanko of the University of New Mexico worked with Fischer to sample the gas inside the ice caves.

“We know that anthropogenic emissions, what we put out by burning fossil fuels, are much higher than what volcanoes put out, probably by a factor of 100,” Fischer said. “But before anthropogenic emissions happened, volcanoes were the main source of putting carbon into the atmosphere. And volcanic carbon emissions in the past have very likely influenced climate.”

The team collected samples from ten different caves and is in the midst of processing and studying them.

Already they encountered some surprising preliminary results. The team found isotopic evidence that some the carbon dioxide they collected seems to be coming from different sources below the surface. The main source is likely directly from the magma deep underground, as expected. However, in a few of the caves they found carbon dioxide with an isotope signature that seems to hint that it was created by some other underground process.

“It has implications for microbial life below the surface,” Fischer said. “If there is an envelope of hydrothermal water, perhaps the microbes live in that water. I don’t know.”

The team is continuing to study and map where these unusual samples came from on the mountain. It’s still too early to tell for sure what’s casing these anomalous results, but the results are tantalizing, and could lead to new directions for future research.

NSF-funded research in this story: Tobias Fischer, University of New Mexico, Award No. 1443633.

Brexit talks: President Tajani in London

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In his first official visit, EU Parliament President Antonio Tajani met with British Prime Minister Theresa May in London to discuss the Brexit conditions set by an overwhelming majority of MEPs earlier this month.

Transcript:

It’s a visit set amid an ongoing separation. European Parliament President Antonio Tajani arrived in Downing Street for the first time to talk Brexit with the British Prime Minister. We want to strengthen citizens’ rights. European citizens living in the UK and UK citizens living in the European Union. This is the most important message, we want to work together. Parliament’s priorities remain: from putting citizens first to no cherry-picking in the single market and no bilateral talks between the UK and individual EU member states. Any Brexit withdrawal deal will need Parliament’s green light. In the meantime, Theresa May has unexpectedly called for a snap election seeking a stronger mandate before talks begin. President Tajani welcomed the move. To have a new government before the beginning of the official negotiation is good not only for the UK but also for us. But caught in between all this are people on both sides of the Channel – unsure of what it all means for them. President Tajani met with NGOs in London to listen to some of their concerns.

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Antonio Tajani
Group of the European People’s Party (Christian Democrats) – Italy –

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Nigeria: World Bank Approves $150 Million to Enhance Mining Sector Contribution and Support Economic Diversification

ABUJA, April 14, 2017—The World Bank’s Board today approved a $150 million credit to enhance the contribution of the mining sector to the Nigerian economy. The project will help establish a strong foundation for mining sector development and enhance competitiveness by improving information infrastructure and knowledge, strengthening of key government institutions, and fostering of domestic investment in the sector.

Nigeria has a favorable geological potential that, if adequately assessed, well exploited and sustainably managed, could support broader economic growth through mineral sector,” said Rachid Benmessaoud, World Bank Country Director, Nigeria. “In line with the Nigerian government’s priority to diversify the economy to a broader range of non-oil productive sectors, one of the key objectives of this project is to support the government in the realization of the full mineral endowment for sector policy, promotion, conducive business environment and integrated long-range resources and investment planning.”

Nigeria has been unable to attract significant investment in exploration and mining into the sector, and current productivity from the Nigerian mining sector is still insufficient to meet local demands, particularly for industrial minerals.  Insufficient geo-data and geological knowledge, weak implementation and enforcement of the mining law and regulations, and a large, poorly regulated and informal artisanal and small-scale mining sub-sector are among the critical binding constraints for sector development.

The project will help develop measures for formalizing, regulating and inventorying artisanal and small-scale mining, facilitate the flow of mineral transactions, facilitate access to finance, technology and equipment, increase knowledge and support the mining and processing of the minerals in accordance with best practices, including with regards to environmental and social protections.

Over the medium to longer-term, expected results include the ability to successfully attract and develop mineral transactions on medium to large mining operations as well as any other mining related (infrastructure) investments.