Analytical Laboratory Services Market by Public Health Organization, by types of services (Stability, Raw Material, Physical Characterization, Method Validation, Microbial Testing, Environmental Monitoring, Bioanalytical Testing) – Forecast to 2021 – Healthcare, Healthcare Administration, Healthcare Services, Hospital Management Industries

The Analytical Laboratory Services Market by Public Health Organization, by types of services (Stability, Raw Material, Physical Characterization, Method Validation, Microbial Testing, Environmental Monitoring, Bioanalytical Testing) – Forecast to 2021 Report has been published. It provides updated in 2018 year analysis of industries from Healthcare, Healthcare Administration, Healthcare Services, Hospital Management Markets.

Growth in the market can be attributed to a number of factors such as the growing expenditure on drugs and medical devices by public health organizations, increasing number of drug approvals and clinical trials, and rising demand for specialized analytical laboratory services. However, complex and innovative pharmaceutical products requiring a distinctive analytical testing approach is the major challenge hampering the growth of government support.

The analytical laboratory services market, by public health organization in this report is segmented by service type. In 2015, the bioanalytical testing segment accounted for the largest share of the analytical laboratory services market, by public health organization. This growth can be attributed to factors such as the usage and development of a large number of macromolecules and biosimilars for various therapeutic areas and the growing biopharmaceutical industry across the globe. The batch release testing services segment has the second largest share during the forecast period. The growth can be attributed to the need for checking and validating the process for product development among pharmaceutical & biopharmaceutical companies and the increasing usage of dissolution test in the development and approval of generic solid oral dosage forms.

In 2015, North America accounted for the largest share in the global analytical laboratory services market, by public health organization, followed by Europe, Asia-Pacific, and the RoW. Growth in the North American region is largely driven by the high expenditure on quality testing, strong regulatory scenario, increasing number of clinical trials, and the well-established federal testing laboratories in the region. Asia-Pacific is expected to grow at a higher CAGR during the forecast period as compared to North America and Europe. This can be attributed to the fast-growing pharmaceutical industry in this region, increased government expenditure on healthcare, increasing number of highly competitive and extremely fragmented pharmaceutical companies, and increased spending by governments to set up new laboratories in Asian countries.

The major public health organizations, in analytical laboratory services market, include the Food and Drug Administration (U.S.), European Medicines Agency (U.K.), Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (Germany), Agence française de sécurité sanitaire des produits de santé (France), Agenzia Italiana del Farmaco (Italy), the Spanish Medicines and Health Products Agency (Spain), Central Drugs Standard Control Organization (India), China Food and Drug Administration, and Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency (Japan).

Research Coverage

  • Detailed insights on all analytical laboratory services, based on service type (bioanalytical testing, batch release testing, stability testing, raw material testing, physical characterization, method validation, microbial testing, and environmental monitoring). This can help market players to identify key regional public spenders, and high growth segments in the analytical laboratory services market, by public health organization.
  • The report also provides information on key government agencies and their spend assessment. This can help the company to assess the regulatory compliance at global and regional levels in a better manner.
  • Country-wise market size and forecast for all the types of services. Thus, not only the high growth spenders and service areas; the market size numbers provided in the report will also enable market players to identify key geographic markets, and thereby strategize global efforts in order to achieve substantial assistance from public health organizations in the coming years.
  • It provides insights on key trends and challenges faced by the public health organizations on analytical laboratory services market.

Reasons to Buy the Report:
 
The report will enrich established firms as well as new entrants/smaller firms to gauge the pulse of the public expenditure based on region, which in turn would help them better understand the analytical laboratory services market, by public health organization. This report gives insight upon the various types of analytical laboratory services.

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Emerging Trends in Applications and Infrastructures for Computational Biology, Bioinformatics, and Systems Biology. Emerging Trends in Computer Science and Applied Computing – Computing and Technology, Software, Telecommunications and Computing Industries

The Emerging Trends in Applications and Infrastructures for Computational Biology, Bioinformatics, and Systems Biology. Emerging Trends in Computer Science and Applied Computing Report has been published. It provides updated in 2018 year analysis of industries from Computing and Technology, Software, Telecommunications and Computing Markets.

Emerging Trends in Applications and Infrastructures for Computational Biology, Bioinformatics, and Systems Biology: Systems and Applications covers the latest trends in the field with special emphasis on their applications. The first part covers the major areas of computational biology, development and application of data-analytical and theoretical methods, mathematical modeling, and computational simulation techniques for the study of biological and behavioral systems.

The second part covers bioinformatics, an interdisciplinary field concerned with methods for storing, retrieving, organizing, and analyzing biological data. The book also explores the software tools used to generate useful biological knowledge.

The third part, on systems biology, explores how to obtain, integrate, and analyze complex datasets from multiple experimental sources using interdisciplinary tools and techniques, with the final section focusing on big data and the collection of datasets so large and complex that it becomes difficult to process using conventional database management systems or traditional data processing applications.

– Explores all the latest advances in this fast-developing field from an applied perspective- Provides the only coherent and comprehensive treatment of the subject available- Covers the algorithm development, software design, and database applications that have been developed to foster research

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North America Resectoscopy – Procedures using Resectoscope Electrodes Outlook to 2023 – Healthcare, Healthcare Services, Surgical Procedures Industries

The North America Resectoscopy – Procedures using Resectoscope Electrodes Outlook to 2023 Report has been published. It provides updated in 2018 year analysis of industries from Healthcare, Healthcare Services, Surgical Procedures Markets.

North America Resectoscopy – Procedures using Resectoscope Electrodes Outlook to 2023

Summary:

The new report, 'North America Resectoscopy – Procedures using Resectoscope Electrodes Outlook to 2023', provides key procedures data on the North America Resectoscopy – Procedures using Resectoscope Electrodes. The report provides procedure volumes within market segments – Procedures using Bipolar Resectoscope Electrodes and Procedures using Monopolar Resectoscope Electrodes.

The data in the report is derived from dynamic market forecast models. We use epidemiology based models to estimate and forecast the procedure volumes. The objective is to provide information that represents the most up-to-date data of the industry possible.

The epidemiology-based forecasting model makes use of epidemiology data gathered from research publications and primary interviews with physicians to establish the target patient population and treatment flow patterns for individual diseases and therapies. Using prevalence and incidence data and diagnosed and treated population, the epidemiology-based forecasting model arrives at the final numbers.

Extensive interviews are conducted with key opinion leaders (KOLs), physicians and industry experts to validate the procedure volumes.

Scope:

  • North America Resectoscopy – Procedures using Resectoscope Electrodes volumes by segments – Procedures using Bipolar Resectoscope Electrodes and Procedures using Monopolar Resectoscope Electrodes.
  • Projections for each of the market segments. Data is provided from 2009 to 2016 and forecast to 2023.

Reasons to Buy:

  • Develop business and investment strategies by identifying the key market segments expected to register strong growth in the near future.
  • Develop market-entry and market expansion strategies.

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Asia-Pacific Ureteroscopes Market Outlook to 2023 – Healthcare, Medical Devices Industries

The Asia-Pacific Ureteroscopes Market Outlook to 2023 Report has been published. It provides updated in 2018 year analysis of industries from Healthcare, Medical Devices Markets.

Asia-Pacific Ureteroscopes Market Outlook to 2023

Summary

The author’s new report, "Asia-Pacific Ureteroscopes Market Outlook to 2023", provides key market data on the Asia-Pacific Ureteroscopes market. The report provides value, in millions of US dollars, volume (in units) and average prices (USD) within market segments – Non-Video Ureteroscopes and Flexible Video Ureteroscopes.

The report also provides company shares and distribution shares data for each of these market segments, and global corporate-level profiles of the key market participants. Based on the availability of data for the particular market and country, information related to pipeline products, news and deals is available in the report.

Extensive interviews are conducted with key opinion leaders (KOLs), physicians and industry experts to validate the market size, company share and distribution share data and analysis.

Scope

– Market size and company share data for Ureteroscopes market segments – Non-Video Ureteroscopes and Flexible Video Ureteroscopes.
– Annualized market revenues (USD million) and volume (units) data for each of the market segments. Data is provided from 2009 to 2016 and forecast to 2023.
– 2016 company shares and distribution shares data for each of the market segments.
– Global corporate-level profiles of key companies operating within the Asia-Pacific Ureteroscopes market.
– Key players covered include Olympus Corporation, KARL STORZ GmbH & Co KG and Others.

Reasons to buy

– Develop business strategies by identifying the key market segments poised for strong growth in the future.
– Develop market-entry and market expansion strategies.
– Design competition strategies by identifying who-stands-where in the market.
– Develop investment strategies by identifying the key market segments expected to register strong growth in the near future.
– What are the key distribution channels and what’s the most preferred mode of product distribution – Identify, understand and capitalize.

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Ireland: Adhesive Bandage Market – Healthcare, Healthcare Services, Wound Care Industries

The Ireland: Adhesive Bandage Market Report has been published. It provides updated in 2018 year analysis of industries from Healthcare, Healthcare Services, Wound Care Markets.

This report presents a comprehensive overview of the adhesive bandage market in Ireland and a forecast for its development in the next five years. It provides a detailed analysis of the market, its dynamics, structure, characteristics, main players, growth and demand drivers, etc.

The purpose of the report is to describe the state of the adhesive bandage market in Ireland, to present actual and retrospective information about the volumes, dynamics, structure and characteristics of production, imports, exports and consumption and to build a forecast for the market in the medium term. In addition, the report presents an elaborate analysis of the main market participants, the price fluctuations, growth and demand drivers of the market and all other factors, influencing its development.

This research report has been prepared using the publisher's unique methodology, including a blend of qualitative and quantitative data. The information comes from official sources and insights from market experts (representatives of the main market participants), gathered by semi-structured interviews.

The report on the adhesive bandage market in Ireland includes:

  • Analysis and forecast for the economy of Ireland;
  • Analysis and forecast for development of the market volume (market size), value and dynamics;
  • Market structure (by origin, by types of products, etc.);
  • Volume, dynamics and analysis of domestic production (past, current and future);
  • Analysis of price levels (wholesale, retail, distributors, etc.) and their dynamics (past, current and future);
  • Volume, dynamics and analysis of imports (past, current and future);
  • Volume, dynamics and analysis of exports (past, current and future);
  • Volume, dynamics and analysis of consumption (past, current and future);
  • Characteristics of the main market participants (manufacturers, distributors, wholesalers, retailers, importers, exporters, Government structures, etc.) and the competitive landscape;
  • Value chain analysis;
  • Analysis of the factors, influencing the development of the market (market growth drivers, restraints, recent state programs, etc.);
  • Analysis and forecast of the trends and levels of supply and demand on the market;
  • Forecast for development of the market in the medium term (including three possible scenarios for development).

This report will allow you to:

  • Quickly and cost-effectively gain competitive intelligence about the market;
  • Track market data, including size, value, segmentation, forecasts, dynamics and structure – past, present and future;
  • Track and identify key market trends, opportunities and threats and key drivers behind recent market changes;
  • Strategically assess market growth potential, demand drivers and restraints on the market;
  • Evaluate the key macroeconomic indicators to get insight into the general trends within the economy;
  • See how the market performed in the past (over the last 5 years) and how it will perform in the future (in the next 5 years);
  • Get acquainted with the leading companies on the market (manufacturers, distributors, wholesalers, retailers, importers, exporters, Governmental structures, etc.);
  • Evaluate how diversified the market is in terms of competitive intensity, fragmentation and environment and understand competitive threats;
  • Empower your marketing, branding, strategy and market development, consumption and supply functions with useful market insights;
  • Build your investment strategy by assessing market attractiveness or company attractiveness;
  • Build your own market entry or market expansion strategy or evaluate your current strategy;
  • Add weight to pitches and presentations by using official and accurate data and calculations.

If you are interested in the adhesive bandage market in Ireland, this research report will provide you with invaluable analysis of the market, its recent and future development. In addition, the report will save you time and money while presenting you all the necessary information, empowering you to make informed decisions and move your business forward!

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Tachdjian’s Procedures in Pediatric Orthopaedics. From the Texas Scottish Rite Hospital for Children – Healthcare, Healthcare Services, Pediatrics, Therapeutic Area Industries

The Tachdjian's Procedures in Pediatric Orthopaedics. From the Texas Scottish Rite Hospital for Children Report has been published. It provides updated in 2018 year analysis of industries from Healthcare, Healthcare Services, Pediatrics, Therapeutic Area Markets.

Tachdjian's Procedures in Pediatric Orthopaedics is a brand new derivative resource from Tachdjian's Pediatric Orthopaedics, 5th Edition, the classic comprehensive offering on the diagnosis and treatment of pediatric musculoskeletal disorders and trauma. For over 40 years, Tachdjian's has been the trusted resource in pediatric orthopaedics, written by experts at Texas Scottish Rite Hospital for Children, a world-renowned pediatric hospital.

This procedures-focused text includes more than 70 colorized, illustrated procedures, providing step-by-step surgical walkthroughs with accompanying intraoperative illustrations. This procedures-only text will appeal to general orthopaedic surgeons, pediatric orthopaedic surgeons, orthopaedic residents, and anyone who needs to quickly and easily learn new techniques or refresh their understanding of challenging procedures.

Read more and order at Tachdjian's Procedures in Pediatric Orthopaedics. From the Texas Scottish Rite Hospital for Children

Japan Hematology and Flow Cytometry Markets: Sales and Market Shares of Major Reagent and Instrument Suppliers – Healthcare, Healthcare Services, Hematology, Therapeutic Area Industries

The Japan Hematology and Flow Cytometry Markets: Sales and Market Shares of Major Reagent and Instrument Suppliers Report has been published. It provides updated in 2018 year analysis of industries from Healthcare, Healthcare Services, Hematology, Therapeutic Area Markets.

This unique report provides Japan sales and market share estimates for major suppliers of hematology and flow cytometry instruments and consumables.
The report also presents strategic assessments of major suppliers and emerging market entrants, including their product portfolios, marketing tactics, technological know-how, new products in R&D, collaborative arrangements, and business strategies.
Competitive Assessments

  • Abbott
  • Agilent Technologies
  • Beckman Coulter/Danaher
  • Becton Dickinson
  • Bio-Rad
  • CellaVision
  • Horiba
  • Iris Diagnostics/Danaher
  • Nihon Kohden
  • Ortho-Clinical Diagnostics
  • Roche
  • Siemens
  • Sysmex

List of Tables
Japan Total Hematology Market by Major Supplier
Japan Hematology Instrument Market by Major Supplier
Japan Hematology Consumable Market by Major Supplier
Japan Total Flow Cytometry Market by Major Supplier
Japan Flow Cytometry Consumables Market by Major Supplier
Japan Flow Cytometry Instrument Market by Major Supplier
Contains 57 pages and 6 tables

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A 39-Country Survey of the Blood Typing, Grouping and Infectious Disease Screening Market – Diagnostics, Healthcare, Healthcare Services, Infectious Disease Testing Industries

The A 39-Country Survey of the Blood Typing, Grouping and Infectious Disease Screening Market Report has been published. It provides updated in 2018 year analysis of industries from Diagnostics, Healthcare, Healthcare Services, Infectious Disease Testing Markets.

This comprehensive 39-country report contains 1,025 pages, 387 tables and provides granular data and analysis not available from any other source. The report is designed to help current suppliers and potential market entrants identify and evaluate emerging opportunities in the global blood banking market during the next five years, and assist industry executives in developing effective business, new product development and marketing strategies.

The report explores future market and technological trends; provides test volume and sales forecasts by market segment/test location; compares features of major automated and semi-automated molecular and immunohematology analyzers; profiles leading and emerging competitors; and identifies specific product and market opportunities facing suppliers during the next five years.

Blood Group Genotyping

PCR, PCR-RFLP, AS-PCR or PCR-SSP, Multiplex PCR, Real Time PCR, Sanger DNA Sequencing, Pyrosequencing

Microarrays

BeadChip Array, BloodChip, Genome Lab SNP Stream, Fluidic Microarray Systems, TaqMan OpenArray, MALDI-TOF-MS, Mini-Sequencing

Blood Typing and Grouping Tests

ABO, Antibody Panels, Antibody Screening/Indirect Antiglobulin, Antigen Typing (C, c, Duffy, E, e, I, i, Kell, Kidd, Le a, b, MN, P, S, s), Antiglobulin (Direct, C3 + IgG, IgG, C3), Crossmatching (Immediate Spin, Full Crossmatch), Rh (D, Du).

Infectious Disease Screening Tests

AIDS (HIV NAT, HIV-1/2), Cytomegalovirus, Hepatitis (HAV NAT, HBV NAT, HBs Ag, Anti-HBc, HCV NAT, HCV, ALT/SGPT), HTLV-I/II, Parvovirus B19 NAT, Syphilis, West Nile Virus NAT.

Sales and Market Share Analysis

Sales and market share estimates for leading suppliers of blood typing, grouping and infectious disease screening tests in major countries.

Countries Analyzed in the Report

Armenia, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy,
Japan, Latvia, Luxembourg, Malta, Moldova, Montenegro, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK, US

Competitive Assessments

Strategic assessments of major suppliers and emerging market entrants, including their sales, M&A, product portfolios, marketing tactics, and new products in R&D.

Market Segmentation Analysis

– Comprehensive market segmentation analysis, including review of the market dynamics, trends, structure, size, growth, and key suppliers.
– Test volume and sales forecasts for over 40 blood typing, grouping and infectious disease screening tests, including NAT assays.

Current and Emerging Products

– Analysis of current and emerging molecular blood typing, grouping and infectious disease NAT screening assays.
– Review of automated and semi-automated molecular and immunohematology analyzers.

Technology Review

– Assessment of current and emerging technologies, and their potential applications for the blood banking market.

– Companies developing or marketing new technologies and products, by test.

Strategic Recommendations

– New product development opportunities for molecular blood typing, grouping and infectious disease NAT assays and instrumentation with significant market appeal.
– Alternative market penetration strategies.
– Potential market entry barriers and risks.

Contains 1,025 pages and 387 tables

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Review of Hemodialysis for Nurses and Dialysis Personnel. Edition No. 9 – Healthcare, Healthcare Services, Nursing Industries

The Review of Hemodialysis for Nurses and Dialysis Personnel. Edition No. 9 Report has been published. It provides updated in 2018 year analysis of industries from Healthcare, Healthcare Services, Nursing Markets.

Get a practical introduction to dialysis and an excellent review for the certification exam! Review of Hemodialysis for Nurses and Dialysis Personnel, 9th Edition uses a concise Q&A format to cover the principles, diseases, and problems of dialysis treatment for kidney failure. Comprehensive without being overwhelming, this book assumes no prior knowledge of dialysis procedures. Two new chapters and five updated chapters keep you current with the latest in dialysis treatment and equipment. Dialysis expert Judy Kallenbach provides clear, easy-to-read guidelines that will apply to every member of the dialysis team, from technicians and nurses to social workers and kidney patients.

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The 2018-2023 World Outlook for Glucose Monitoring Devices – Diagnostics, Glucose Testing, Healthcare, Healthcare Services Industries

The The 2018-2023 World Outlook for Glucose Monitoring Devices Report has been published. It provides updated in 2018 year analysis of industries from Diagnostics, Glucose Testing, Healthcare, Healthcare Services Markets.

This study covers the world outlook for glucose monitoring devices across more than 190 countries. For each year reported, estimates are given for the latent demand, or potential industry earnings (P.I.E.), for the country in question (in millions of U.S. dollars), the percent share the country is of the region, and of the globe. These comparative benchmarks allow the reader to quickly gauge a country vis-à-vis others. Using econometric models which project fundamental economic dynamics within each country and across countries, latent demand estimates are created. This report does not discuss the specific players in the market serving the latent demand, nor specific details at the product level. The study also does not consider short-term cyclicalities that might affect realized sales. The study, therefore, is strategic in nature, taking an aggregate and long-run view, irrespective of the players or products involved. This study does not report actual sales data (which are simply unavailable, in a comparable or consistent manner in virtually all of the countries of the world). This study gives, however, my estimates for the worldwide latent demand, or the P.I.E., for glucose monitoring devices. It also shows how the P.I.E. is divided across the world's regional and national markets. For each country, I also show my estimates of how the P.I.E. grows over time (positive or negative growth). In order to make these estimates, a multi-stage methodology was employed that is often taught in courses on international strategic planning at graduate schools of business.

1.3 The Methodology

In order to estimate the latent demand for glucose monitoring devices on a worldwide basis, I used a multi-stage approach. Before applying the approach, one needs a basic theory from which such estimates are created. In this case, I heavily rely on the use of certain basic economic assumptions. In particular, there is an assumption governing the shape and type of aggregate latent demand functions. Latent demand functions relate the income of a country, city, state, household, or individual to realized consumption. Latent demand (often realized as consumption when an industry is efficient), at any level of the value chain, takes place if an equilibrium is realized. For firms to serve a market, they must perceive a latent demand and be able to serve that demand at a minimal return. The single most important variable determining consumption, assuming latent demand exists, is income (or other financial resources at higher levels of the value chain). Other factors that can pivot or shape demand curves include external or exogenous shocks (i.e., business cycles), and or changes in utility for the product in question.

Ignoring, for the moment, exogenous shocks and variations in utility across countries, the aggregate relation between income and consumption has been a central theme in economics. The figure below concisely summarizes one aspect of problem. In the 1930s, John Meynard Keynes conjectured that as incomes rise, the average propensity to consume would fall. The average propensity to consume is the level of consumption divided by the level of income, or the slope of the line from the origin to the consumption function. He estimated this relationship empirically and found it to be true in the short-run (mostly based on cross-sectional data). The higher the income, the lower the average propensity to consume. This type of consumption function is shown as "B" in the figure below (note the rather flat slope of the curve). In the 1940s, another macroeconomist, Simon Kuznets, estimated long-run consumption functions which indicated that the marginal propensity to consume was rather constant (using time series data across countries). This type of consumption function is show as "B" in the figure below (note the higher slope and zero-zero intercept).

The average propensity to consume is constant. For a general overview of this subject area, see Principles of Macroeconomics by N. Gregory Mankiw, South-Western College Publishing; ISBN: 0030340594; 2nd edition (February 2002).

Is it declining or is it constant? A number of other economists, notably Franco Modigliani and Milton Friedman, in the 1950s (and Irving Fisher earlier), explained why the two functions were different using various assumptions on intertemporal budget constraints, savings, and wealth. The shorter the time horizon, the more consumption can depend on wealth (earned in previous years) and business cycles. In the long-run, however, the propensity to consume is more constant. Similarly, in the long-run, households, industries, or countries with no income eventually have no consumption (wealth is depleted). While the debate surrounding beliefs about how income and consumption are related and interesting, in this study a very particular school of thought is adopted. In particular, we are considering the latent demand for glucose monitoring devices across some 190 countries. The smallest have fewer than 10,000 inhabitants. I assume that all of these counties fall along a "long-run" aggregate consumption function. This long-run function applies despite some of these countries having wealth; current income dominates the latent demand for glucose monitoring devices. So, latent demand in the long-run has a zero intercept. However, I allow firms to have different propensities to consume (including being on consumption functions with differing slopes, which can account for differences in industrial organization, and end-user preferences).

Given this overriding philosophy, I will now describe the methodology used to create the latent demand estimates for glucose monitoring devices. Since this methodology applies to a large number of categories, the rather academic discussion below is general and can be applied to a wide variety of categories, not just glucose monitoring devices.

1.3.1 Step 1. Product Definition And Data Collection

Any study of latent demand across countries requires that some standard be established to define "efficiently served". Having implemented various alternatives and matched these with market outcomes, I have found that the optimal approach is to assume that certain key countries are more likely to be at or near efficiency than others. These countries are given greater weight than others in the estimation of latent demand compared to other countries for which no known data are available. Of the many alternatives, I have found the assumption that the world’s highest aggregate income and highest income-per-capita markets reflect the best standards for “efficiency”. High aggregate income alone is not sufficient (i.e., China has high aggregate income, but low income per capita and cannot be assumed to be efficient). Aggregate income can be operationalized in a number of ways, including gross domestic product (for industrial categories), or total disposable income (for household categories; population times average income per capita, or number of households times average household income per capita). Brunei, Nauru, Kuwait, and Lichtenstein are examples of countries with high income per capita, but not assumed to be efficient, given low aggregate level of income (or gross domestic product); these countries have, however, high incomes per capita but may not benefit from the efficiencies derived from economies of scale associated with large economies. Only countries with high income per capita and large aggregate income are assumed efficient. This greatly restricts the pool of countries to those in the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development), like the United States, or the United Kingdom (which were earlier than other large OECD economies to liberalize their markets).

The selection of countries is further reduced by the fact that not all countries in the OECD report have industry revenues at the category level. Countries that typically have ample data at the aggregate level that meet the efficiency criteria include the United States, the United Kingdom, and in some cases France and Germany.
Is it declining or is it constant? A number of other economists, notably Franco Modigliani and Milton Friedman, in the 1950s (and Irving Fisher earlier), explained why the two functions were different using various assumptions on intertemporal budget constraints, savings, and wealth. The shorter the time horizon, the more consumption can depend on wealth (earned in previous years) and business cycles. In the long-run, however, the propensity to consume is more constant. Similarly, in the long-run, households, industries, or countries with no income eventually have no consumption (wealth is depleted). While the debate surrounding beliefs about how income and consumption are related and interesting, in this study a very particular school of thought is adopted. In particular, we are considering the latent demand for glucose monitoring devices across some 190 countries. The smallest have fewer than 10,000 inhabitants. I assume that all of these counties fall along a "long-run" aggregate consumption function. This long-run function applies despite some of these countries having wealth; current income dominates the latent demand for glucose monitoring devices. So, latent demand in the long-run has a zero intercept. However, I allow firms to have different propensities to consume (including being on consumption functions with differing slopes, which can account for differences in industrial organization, and end-user preferences).Given this overriding philosophy, I will now describe the methodology used to create the latent demand estimates for glucose monitoring devices. Since this methodology applies to a large number of categories, the rather academic discussion below is general and can be applied to a wide variety of categories, not just glucose monitoring devices.

1.3.1 Step 1. Product Definition And Data Collection

Any study of latent demand across countries requires that some standard be established to define "efficiently served". Having implemented various alternatives and matched these with market outcomes, I have found that the optimal approach is to assume that certain key countries are more likely to be at or near efficiency than others. These countries are given greater weight than others in the estimation of latent demand compared to other countries for which no known data are available. Of the many alternatives, I have found the assumption that the world’s highest aggregate income and highest income-per-capita markets reflect the best standards for “efficiency”. High aggregate income alone is not sufficient (i.e., China has high aggregate income, but low income per capita and cannot be assumed to be efficient). Aggregate income can be operationalized in a number of ways, including gross domestic product (for industrial categories), or total disposable income (for household categories; population times average income per capita, or number of households times average household income per capita). Brunei, Nauru, Kuwait, and Lichtenstein are examples of countries with high income per capita, but not assumed to be efficient, given low aggregate level of income (or gross domestic product); these countries have, however, high incomes per capita but may not benefit from the efficiencies derived from economies of scale associated with large economies. Only countries with high income per capita and large aggregate income are assumed efficient. This greatly restricts the pool of countries to those in the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development), like the United States, or the United Kingdom (which were earlier than other large OECD economies to liberalize their markets).The selection of countries is further reduced by the fact that not all countries in the OECD report have industry revenues at the category level. Countries that typically have ample data at the aggregate level that meet the efficiency criteria include the United States, the United Kingdom, and in some cases France and Germany.Latent demand is therefore estimated using data collected for relatively efficient markets from independent data sources (e.g. Euromonitor, Mintel, Thomson Financial Services, the U.S. Industrial Outlook, the World Resources Institute, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, various agencies from the United Nations, industry trade associations, the International Monetary Fund, and the World Bank). Depending on original data sources used, the definition of "glucose monitoring devices" is established. In the case of this report, the data were reported at the aggregate level, with no further breakdown or definition. In other words, any potential products that might be incorporated within glucose monitoring devices fall under this category. Public sources rarely report data at the disaggregated level in order to protect private information from individual firms that might dominate a specific product-market. These sources will therefore aggregate across components of a category and report only the aggregate to the public. While private data are certainly available, this report only relies on public data at the aggregate level without reliance on the summation of various category components. In other words, this report does not aggregate a number of components to arrive at the "whole". Rather, it starts with the "whole", and estimates the whole for all countries and the world at large (without needing to know the specific parts that went into the whole in the first place).Given this caveat, in this report we define the sales of glucose monitoring devices as including all commonly understood products falling within this broad category, such as blood glucose meters and testing strips, lancets, and continuous glucose monitoring devices (CGM), irrespective of product packaging, formulation, size, or form. Companies participating in this industry include LifeScan, Eli Lilly and Company, Bayer, Medtronic, F. Hoffmann-La Roche, and GlaxoSmithKline. In addition to the sources indicated below, additional information available to the public via news and/or press releases published by players in the industry was considered in defining and calibrating this category. All figures are in a common currency (U.S. dollars, millions) and are not adjusted for inflation (i.e., they are current values). Exchange rates used to convert to U.S. dollars are averages for the year in question. Future exchange rates are assumed to be constant in the future at the current level (the average of the year of this publication’s release in 2017).This report was prepared from a variety of sources including excerpts from documents and official reports or databases published by the World Bank, the U.S. Department of Commerce, the U.S. State Department, various national agencies, the International Monetary Fund, the Central Intelligence Agency, various agencies from the United Nations (e.g. ILO, ITU, UNDP, etc.), and non-governmental sources and various public sources cited in the trade press.

1.3.2 Step 2. Filtering And Smoothing

Based on the aggregate view of glucose monitoring devices as defined above, data were then collected for as many similar countries as possible for that same definition, at the same level of the value chain. This generates a convenience sample of countries from which comparable figures are available. If the series in question do not reflect the same accounting period, then adjustments are made. In order to eliminate short-term effects of business cycles, the series are smoothed using a 2-year moving average weighting scheme (longer weighting schemes do not substantially change the results). If data are available for a country, but these reflect short-run aberrations due to exogenous shocks (such as would be the case of beef sales in a country stricken with foot and mouth disease), these observations were dropped or "filtered" from the analysis.

1.3.3 Step 3. Filling In Missing Values

In some cases, data are available for countries on a sporadic basis. In other cases, data from a country may be available for only one year. From a Bayesian perspective, these observations should be given the greatest weight in estimating missing years. Assuming that other factors are held constant, the missing years are extrapolated using changes and growth in aggregate national income. Based on the overriding philosophy of a long-run consumption function (defined earlier), countries which have missing data for any given year are estimated based on historical dynamics of aggregate income for that country.

1.3.4 Step 4. Varying Parameter, Non-Linear Estimation

Given the data available from the first three steps, the latent demand in additional countries is estimated using a "varying-parameter cross-sectionally pooled time series model".

The interested reader can find longer discussions of this type of modeling in Studies in Global Econometrics (Advanced Studies in Theoretical and Applied Econometrics V. 30), by Henri Theil, et al., Kluwer Academic Publishers; ISBN: 0792336607; (June 1996), and in Principles of Econometrics, by Henri Theil John Wiley & Sons; ISBN: 0471858455; (December 1971), and in Econometric Models and Economic Forecasts by Robert S. Pindyck, Daniel L. Rubinfeld McGraw Hill Text; ISBN: 0070500983; 3rd edition (December 1991). Simply stated, the effect of income on latent demand is assumed to be constant across countries unless there is empirical evidence to suggest that this effect varies (i.e., the slope of the income effect is not necessarily the same for all countries). This assumption applies across countries along the aggregate consumption function, but also over time (i.e., not all countries are perceived to have the same income growth prospects over time and this effect can vary from country to country as well). Another way of looking at this is to say that latent demand for glucose monitoring devices is more likely to be similar across countries that have similar characteristics in terms of economic development (i.e., African countries will have similar latent demand structures controlling for the income variation across the pool of African countries). This approach is useful across countries for which some notion of non-linearity exists in the aggregate cross-country consumption function. For some categories, however, the reader must realize that the numbers will reflect a country’s contribution to global latent demand and may never be realized in the form of local sales. For certain country-category combinations this will result in what at first glance will be odd results. For example, the latent demand for the category "space vehicles" will exist for Togo even though they have no space program. The assumption is that if the economies in these countries did not exist, the world aggregate for these categories would be lower. The share attributed to these countries is based on a proportion of their income (however small) being used to consume the category in question (i.e., perhaps via resellers).

1.3.5 Step 5. Fixed-Parameter Linear Estimation

Nonlinearities are assumed in cases where filtered data exist along the aggregate consumption function. Because the world consists of more than 200 countries, there will always be those countries, especially toward the bottom of the consumption function, where non-linear estimation is simply not possible. For these countries, equilibrium latent demand is assumed to be perfectly parametric and not a function of wealth (i.e., a country’s stock of income), but a function of current income (a country’s flow of income). In the long run, if a country has no current income, the latent demand for glucose monitoring devices is assumed to approach zero. The assumption is that wealth stocks fall rapidly to zero if flow income falls to zero (i.e., countries which earn low levels of income will not use their savings, in the long run, to demand glucose monitoring devices). In a graphical sense, for low-income countries, latent demand approaches zero in a parametric linear fashion with a zero-zero intercept. In this stage of the estimation procedure, low-income countries are assumed to have a latent demand proportional to their income, based on the country closest to it on the aggregate consumption function.

1.3.6 Step 6. Aggregation And Benchmarking

Based on the models described in Chapter 1, latent demand figures are estimated for all countries of the world, including for the smallest economies. These are then aggregated to get world totals and regional totals. To make the numbers more meaningful, regional and global demand averages are presented. Figures are rounded, so minor inconsistencies may exist across tables.

1.3.7 Step 7. Latent Demand Density: Allocating Across Cities

With the advent of a "borderless world", cities become a more important criteria in prioritizing markets, as opposed to regions, continents, or countries. This report also covers the world’s top 2,000 cities. The purpose is to understand the density of demand within a country and the extent to which a city might be used as a point of distribution within its region. From an economic perspective, however, a city does not represent a population within rigid geographical boundaries. To an economist or strategic planner, a city represents an area of dominant influence over markets in adjacent areas. This influence varies from one industry to another, but also from one period of time to another.

Similar to country-level data, the reader needs to realize that latent demand allocated to a city may or may not represent real sales. For many items, latent demand is clearly observable in sales, as in the case for food or housing items. Consider, again, the category "satellite launch vehicles." Clearly, there are no launch pads in most cities of the world. However, the core benefit of the vehicles (e.g. telecommunications, etc.) is "consumed" by residents or industries within the world's cities. Without certain cities, in other words, the world market for satellite launch vehicles would be lower for the world in general. One needs to allocate, therefore, a portion of the worldwide economic demand for launch vehicles to regions, countries, and cities. This report takes the broader definition and considers, therefore, a city as a part of the global market. I allocate latent demand across areas of dominant influence based on the relative economic importance of cities within its home country, within its region, and across the world total. Not all cities are estimated within each country as demand may be allocated to adjacent areas of influence. Since some cities have higher economic wealth than others within the same country, a city’s population is not generally used to allocate latent demand. Rather, the level of economic activity of the city is used vis-à-vis others.

Read more and order at The 2018-2023 World Outlook for Glucose Monitoring Devices